How Solar Panels Work?

Solar power is something that we all have heard of, but we don’t necessarily understand it. This article will break down the process of converting sunlight into energy and show how to set up a solar power system for your home. Earth can intercept a lot of solar power.173000 Tw (terawatts) are 10,000 times more power than we the population of the planet are utilizing. so, is it possible to completely rely on solar energy? To answer this query, we need to know how solar panels work. In this article, we will address the working of solar panels in the best and easiest way so that you may understand in a better way how solar panels work.

How Solar Panels Work?

Firstly, what we need to know is how solar panels convert solar energy to electrical energy. Solar panels are made up of small units called solar cells.

Use of silicon in solar cells:

The most common solar cells are made up of silicon, the second most abundant element on the planet. Moreover, Silicon is a semiconductor metal.

In a solar cell, crystal and silicon are embedded or sandwiched between conductive layers. Each silicon atom is connected to its neighbouring atoms. This connection of silicon atoms to neighbouring atoms is formed through four strong bonds. These bonds keep the electrons in place. This is the key. Two different layers of silicon are used in silicon cells.

N-Type Electrons:

N-type silicon present in a solar cell contains extra electrons.

P-Type Electrons:

P-type electrons contain extra spaces for electrons. These are called holes.

PN junction:

The place where two kinds of ions meet the P/N junction is formed. Electrons can wander across these junctions. Electrons can move across easily. This movement of electrons causes a positive charge on one side and leaves a negative charge on the other.

Role of sunlight:

Sun pours its light on the earth. You can consider that sunlight as the flow of tiny particles. These flowing particles are called photons tiny packets of energy. When light falls on silicon solar plates along with these photons, it can move electrons present in the P/N junction.

Knocking down the electron bonds:

When light energy enters silicon it can knock down electrons from their hole leaving a hole. This electron is knocked down because light energy breaks down the bond present among electrons. The negatively charged electron left a positive charge on the hole.

Movement of Electrons:

This negatively charged electron is free to move now. Because of the electric field at the P/N junction, the electron goes one way. Electron moves towards N-side and holes are produced at the p-side. Thin electric fingers are present at top of the cell. these electrons flow in the circuit and in this way, the current is ready to operate your appliances.

Power your appliances:

You can enlighten a bulb, charge your cell phone and use your other appliances depending on the voltage generated by these solar panels.

Voltage in one silicon cell:

Each silicon cell contains only half of the volt, but these silicon cells are stringed up together to produce more power You can enhance the voltage and power just by adding more and more photovoltaic cells.

Twelve photovoltaic cells are producing enough power to charge your cell phone. Likewise, if you want to run a house or office with solar panels many modules are required as per power requirements.


Electrons are the main players in power production. Electricity production is mainly depending on their movement and goes nowhere move in their circuits and holes. these electrons go back where they came from without being worn off. So, solar cells and solar panels last for decades.

Types of Solar energy technologies:

Photovoltaic solar panels:

Photovoltaic panels are used to create electricity directly from the sun. This is probably the most common solar energy panel you may be familiar with. When sunshine falls on the solar panel, energy is absorbed by PV cells. Electrical charges flow due to this solar energy. this energy creates an internal electric field in the cell. this causes electricity to flow.

Concentrating solar thermal:

Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) uses a lens to focus the light onto a smaller area. So, reducing the amount of sunlight required to generate the same amount of energy. Moreover, this concentrating solar thermal system is present in very large power plants. In this concentrating solar thermal power system mirrors are used mainly. There large-size mirror’s purpose is to concentrate sunlight mainly on the receiver. In addition to this, This receiver converts this solar energy into heat and which can then be used in producing electricity that can be used later.

How Much Energy Can Solar Panels Generate?

The amount of energy you can generate depends on your geographic location, the type of solar panels you purchase, and the amount of sunlight that hits your roof. A good rule of thumb is to multiply the amount of square footage on your roof by the number of solar panels you want to purchase.

The reason why you should do this is that the amount of electricity produced by each panel varies. In general, you’ll want to have at least three panels to cover the entire roof area. The average homeowner can expect to get around 200-kilowatt hours of energy per day from one panel. That means you’ll need four panels to produce a total of 800 kWh per day.

Why we are not completely relying on solar power?

There are political factors that are playing role in provoking our system to completely rely on the solar system. Except for political factors, there are business lobbies that are against solar energy reliance.

Another physical and logistic factor that is inhibiting solar power reliance is that solar energy is unevenly available in many parts of the world. Solar energy is inconsistently available due to cloudy weather and nights. So, we can’t go on complete reliance on solar systems in these areas.

Is Cell efficiency a challenge?

The efficiency of work is a challenge too. If sunlight is reflected instead of being absorbed, or if the dislodged electron is fallen back to its hole before becoming part of the circuit. current will not flow as the photon energy has been lost.

Do solar panels convert all solar energy into electrical energy?

No, solar panels can’t convert all the solar energy into electrical energy. The most efficient solar panels can convert only 46% of the sunlight into electricity. And most solar panels that are being used commercially can convert only 15 to 20% of the solar energy into electricity.

Where Should I Place My Solar Panels?

The ideal place to place your solar panels is on the south side of your house, as this is the direction the sun travels during the day. The roof is also the ideal place to place them, as it receives direct sunlight. However, the orientation of your roof may vary, so it’s important to do your research. You may also want to consider the angle of your roof, since it may block the sun’s rays at certain times of the day.


Is it possible to power the entire world with solar energy?

Despite all the problems, we can switch to solar energy. Because there are lots of landscapes on which the sun is constantly pouring sunshine. A good deal of space and funding to build infrastructure is needed to power the entire world with solar energy. we can use the Sahara Desert for solar energy production. Moreover, alone the Sahara Desert can fulfil our space needs as it is spread over 3 million square miles and the scorching sun is present the whole day there.

Why the solar system is cheaper?

The solar system is much cheaper because the cells used in panels are cheaper, better, and long-lasting. Moreover, there is a one-time investment, freedom from bill payment, and no need for maintenance for a long time.

What is a floating solar system?

We can use those water bodies, seas, oceans, and beaches where sunshine is constantly pouring solar energy. A floating solar system is panel mounted structure, that is mounted on such structures that continuously float over water bodies.


In conclusion, a solar power system can provide electricity to your home or business and produce energy while generating a revenue stream for you. It is a great way to get started in the renewable energy world and invest in a sustainable future for you and your family.

Above all, a solar panel is the first step in the journey towards going green. By installing a solar power system you can save money on your electric bill and create a beautiful investment that can generate revenue for you.

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